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Virtual Concept -
A Small Three-Wheeler ‘Tuk Tuk’

Hypowa has developed a virtual concept for one of the smallest available three-wheeled lightweight transportation vehicles, sometimes called a Tuk Tuk or Rickshaw. The concept clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility, for even the smallest vehicles.

The hydrogen fuel cell system is a liquid cooled PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) with a rated power of 1,800 W (maximum power 2,000 W) and an operating voltage 21 ~ 33 V. The system can operate in ambient temperatures of -10 to +50 °C.

The fuel cell system is proven: it has already been used for a similar lightweight, two-wheeled vehicle, of which large numbers have been produced. It’s robust and durable, depending on the load cycle, achieving several thousand hours of operation with minimal performance loss. Additional filters prevent damage by harmful gases in regions with high air contamination.

The gas assembly consists of a hydrogen refuel receptacle and either one or two 26 litre 700 bar hydrogen tanks that can each store 1 kg of hydrogen. The 700 bar tank assembly includes tank, tank valve, pressure regulator and a low-pressure interface. 2 kg of hydrogen has an energy density of ~ 70 kWh. Depending on the load cycle, the fuel cell system can generate approximately 30-35 kWh of electricity. The hydrogen in the tanks is therefore sufficient to operate the vehicle for up to 15-20 hours, subject to mode of usage.


A small traction battery and/or super capacitor assembly is included for regenerative braking and fast acceleration. 

We also anticipate the use of Power Take-Off (PTO) or Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) or Vehicle-to-Load (V2L). The tuk tuk can power a cooling unit while driving, or act as an 1800 W mobile, noise- and emissionfree generator when parked. Tailored solutions for 220 Volt Alternating Current (AC) or different Direct Current (DC) options (12/24/48 V) are also available.





The "Architecutre and Layout Concept" diagrams show the location of the fully sealed electric motor, motor controller, single phase inverter, vehicle control unit and the super cap. The bodywork is not compromised: there is still space for a spare wheel and no loss of ground clearance. The fuel cell components are within the dimensions of the existing chassis and protected by it.

Click here or on image for pdf version of "Architecture and Layout Concept".

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